The OnlineMetals Guide to Stainless Steel

OnlineMetals.com currently stocks eighteen (18!) grades of stainless steel in various shapes and sizes:
303 Stainless Steel (available in Hex, Rectangle, Round, Square)
304 Stainless Steel (available in Angle, BACKSPLASH, Foil, Hex, Perforated Sheet, Pipe, Plate, Rectangle, Rectangle Tube, Round, Sheet, Square, Square Tube, TILE, Tread Plate, Tube)
316 Stainless Steel (available in Angle, Foil, Hex, Pipe, Plate, Rectangle, Round, Sheet, Square, Square Tube, Tube)
301 Stainless Steel (available in Sheet)
302 Stainless Steel (available in Sheet)
310 Stainless Steel (available in Sheet)
321 Stainless Steel (available in Hex, Plate, Round, Sheet)
347 Stainless Steel (available in Hex, Plate, Round, Sheet)
410 Stainless Steel (available in Plate, Rectangle, Round, Sheet, Square)
416 Stainless Steel (available in Round)
420 Stainless Steel (available in Rectangle, Square)
430 Stainless Steel (available in Sheet, TRIM STRIP)
440c Stainless Steel (available in Rectangle, Round, Square)
15-5 Stainless Steel (available in Hex, Round, Sheet)
17-4 Stainless Steel (available in Plate, Rectangle, Round, Sheet, Square)
17-7 Stainless Steel (available in Sheet)
Nitronic 50 Stainless Steel (available in Round)
Nitronic 60 Stainless Steel (available in Round)

303 Stainless Steel
T-303 is one of the 3 main alloys of commercially available stainless steel. It has mechanical properties that are comparable to both 304 and 316 stainless. The primary reason to use 303 is when you need a stainless steel with machining capabilites better than that of 304 and 316. It has roughly the same corrosion resistance as 304, but not as good as 316. The main drawback with the alloy is that it is not generally considered to be weldable. This material is hardenable by cold work.

303 stainless steel (cold drawn annealed, room temperature)
Minimum Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 89,900
Yield Strength, psi 34,800
Elongation 50%
Rockwell Hardness B83
Chemistry Iron (Fe) 69%
Carbon (C) 0.15% max
Chrome (Cr) 18%
Manganese (Mn) 2% max
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.6% max
Nickel (Ni) 9%
Phosphorus (P) 0.2% max
Sulphur (S) 0.15% min
Silicon (Si) 1% max

304 Stainless Steel
T-304 is the most commonly used stainless in the world. You can find it in everything from forks and knives to backsplashes. It is weldable, machinable with the right techniques, and has good corrosion resistance, but is not for use in salt water environments. This material is hardenable by cold work.

304 Stainless Steel (annealed condition)
Minimum Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 73,200
Yield Strength, psi 31,200
Elongation 70%
Rockwell Hardness B70
Chemistry Iron (Fe) 66.5 - 74%
Carbon (C) 0.08% max
Chrome (Cr) 18 - 20%
Manganese (Mn) 2% max
Nickel (Ni) 8 - 10.5%
Phosphorus (P) 0.045% max
Sulphur (S) 0.03% max
Silicon (Si) 1% max

316 Stainless Steel
Also known as marine-grade stainless steel, T-316 is similar in machinability and weldability to T-304, but has far superior corrosion resistance. It has a far higher yield strength than both 303 and 304, meaning that it will not bend as easily. This material is hardenable by cold work.

316 stainless steel (annealed condition)
Minimum Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 89,900
Yield Strength, psi 60,200
Elongation 45%
Rockwell Hardness B91
Chemistry Iron (Fe) 65%
Carbon (C) 0.08% max
Chrome (Cr) 17%
Manganese (Mn) 2%
Molybdenum (Mo) 2.5%
Nickel (Ni) 12%
Phosphorus (P) 0.045%
Sulphur (S) 0.03% min
Silicon (Si) 1%

301 Stainless Steel
There are a lot of stainless steel alloys. We're still trying to think of something interesting to write about this one This alloy is normally used for decorative or ornamental applications, as it has a bright surface finish. Its yield strength is comparable to T-304. This material is hardenable by cold work.

301 stainless steel
Minimum Properties
(annealed condition)
Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 74,700 min
Yield Strength, psi 29,700 min
Elongation 40% min
Rockwell Hardness B85
Minimum Properties
(1/4 hard condition)
Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 125,000 min
Yield Strength, psi 75,000 min
Elongation 25% min
Rockwell Hardness C25
Minimum Properties
(1/2 hard condition)
Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 150,000 min
Yield Strength, psi 110,000
Elongation 18% min
Rockwell Hardness C32
Minimum Properties
(full hard condition)
Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 185,000 min
Yield Strength, psi 140,000 min
Elongation 9% min
Rockwell Hardness C41
Chemistry Iron (Fe) 75%
Carbon (C) 0.15% max
Chrome (Cr) 16 - 18%
Manganese (Mn) 2% max
Nitrogen (N) 0.1% max
Nickel (Ni) 6 - 8%
Phosphorus (P) 0.045% max
Sulphur (S) 0.03% max
Silicon (Si) 0.75% max

302 Stainless Steel
Under normal circumstances T-304 can be dual-certified as T-302 because the standards overlap. T-302 has better corrosion resistance than T-301. This material is hardenable by cold work.

302 Stainless Steel (annealed condition)
Minimum Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 89,900
Yield Strength, psi 39,900
Elongation 55%
Rockwell Hardness B85
Chemistry Iron (Fe) 70%
Carbon (C) 0.15% max
Chrome (Cr) 18%
Manganese (Mn) 2% max
Nickel (Ni) 9%
Phosphorus (P) 0.045% max
Sulphur (S) 0.03% max
Silicon (Si) 1% max

310 Stainless Steel
This alloy of stainless is chosen primarily for its high resistance to scaling at temperatures up to 2000° F. This material is hardenable by cold work.

310 Stainless Steel (annealed condition)
Minimum Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 89,900
Yield Strength, psi 45,000
Elongation 45%
Rockwell Hardness B85
Chemistry Iron (Fe) 48 - 53%
Carbon (C) 0.25%
Chrome (Cr) 26%
Manganese (Mn) 2%
Nickel (Ni) 19 - 22%
Phosphorus (P) 0.045% max
Sulphur (S) 0.03%
Silicon (Si) 1.5%

321 Stainless Steel
This material has similar properties to alloy 304, but its titanium content limits carbide precipitation, making it somewhat easier to machine. This material is hardenable by cold work.

321 Stainless Steel (annealed condition)
Minimum Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 89,900
Yield Strength, psi 34,800
Elongation 45%
Rockwell Hardness B80
Chemistry Iron (Fe) 68%
Carbon (C) 0.08%
Chrome (Cr) 18%
Manganese (Mn) 2%
Nickel (Ni) 11%
Phosphorus (P) 0.045% max
Sulphur (S) 0.03%
Silicon (Si) 1%
Titanium (Ti) 0.15%

347 Stainless Steel
Like T-321 stainless, T-347 is comparable to to T-304, with limits on carbide precipitation provided by the addition of Niobium and Tantalum. Yes, Niobium and Tantalum. Who the heck thinks of these things? Then again, we shouldn't be ones to talk. We came up with this crazy idea for a metals service center, then went and built it. Oh, by the way, this material is hardenable by cold work.

347 Stainless Steel (annealed condition)
Minimum Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 95,000
Yield Strength, psi 39,900
Elongation 45%
Rockwell Hardness B85
Chemistry Iron (Fe) 68%
Carbon (C) 0.08% max
Chrome (Cr) 17%
Manganese (Mn) 2%
Nickel (Ni) 11%
Niobium (Nb) + Tantalum (Ta) 0.8%
Phosphorus (P) 0.045% max
Sulphur (S) 0.03%
Silicon (Si) 1%

410 Stainless Steel
This material is hardenable by heat treatment.

410 Stainless Steel (annealed condition)
Minimum Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 65,000
Yield Strength, psi 30,000
Elongation 20 - 34%
Rockwell Hardness B82
Chemistry Iron (Fe) 86%
Carbon (C) 0.15% max
Chrome (Cr) 12.5%
Manganese (Mn) 1% max
Phosphorus (P) 0.04% max
Sulphur (S) 0.03%

416 Stainless Steel
This material is hardenable by heat treatment. The addition of Silicon makes for easier machining.

416 Stainless Steel (annealed condition)
Minimum Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 74,700
Yield Strength, psi 39,900
Elongation 30%
Rockwell Hardness B82
Chemistry Iron (Fe) 84%
Carbon (C) 0.15% max
Chrome (Cr) 13%
Manganese (Mn) 1.25% max
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.6% max
Phosphorus (P) 0.06% max
Sulphur (S) 0.15% min
Silicon (Si) 1% max

420 Stainless Steel
Hardenable stainless steel which can be hardened to approximately Rockwell C50.

420 Stainless Steel (annealed condition)
Minimum Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 95,000
Yield Strength, psi 50,000
Elongation 25%
Brinell Hardness 241
Chemistry Iron (Fe) 84%
Carbon (C) 0.15% min
Chrome (Cr) 12 - 14%
Manganese (Mn) 1%
Phosphorus (P) 0.04% max
Sulphur (S) 0.03%

430 Stainless Steel
This is one of the few magnetic grades of stainless steel. Its corrosion resistance is less than the more common alloys of 303 and 304. In addition, welding this material is possible, but the welds are not suitable for applications with constant stress or strain on them. This material is not hardenable by heat treatment or by cold work.

430 Stainless Steel (annealed condition)
Minimum Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 75,000
Yield Strength, psi 50,000
Elongation 25%
Rockwell Hardness B85
Chemistry Iron (Fe) 87%
Carbon (C) 0.12% max
Chrome (Cr) 11%
Manganese (Mn) 1% max
Phosphorus (P) 0.04% max
Sulphur (S) 0.03% max
Silicon (Si) 1% max

440c Stainless Steel
A high carbon type of stainless, this is the alloy most often used for knife-making. Can be heat treated for high strength and hardness. Greater abrasion and wear resistance for use in bearing and bushing applications. Corrosion resistant only in the hardened condition.

430 Stainless Steel (annealed condition)
Minimum Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 75,000
Yield Strength, psi 50,000
Elongation 25%
Rockwell Hardness B85
Chemistry Iron (Fe) 87%
Carbon (C) 0.12% max
Chrome (Cr) 11%
Manganese (Mn) 1% max
Phosphorus (P) 0.04% max
Sulphur (S) 0.03% max
Silicon (Si) 1% max

15-5 Stainless Steel
Also known as a PH, or precipitation-hardening, grade of stainless, this alloy is used a great deal in the aircraft industry in part due to its strength, and also because there are a wide range of heat treatments to choose from to reach a specified hardness or other properties.

15-5 PH Stainless Steel Condition A (annealed)
Minimum Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 161,000
Yield Strength, psi 140,000
Elongation 7.6%
Rockwell Hardness C35
Chemistry Iron (Fe) 71.91 - 79.85%
Carbon (C) 0.07% max
Chrome (Cr) 14 - 15.5%
Manganese (Mn) 1% max
Niobium (Nb) + Tantalum (Ta) 0.15 - 0.45% max
Nickel (Ni) 3.5 - 5.5%
Phosphorus (P) 0.04% max
Sulphur (S) 0.03% min
Silicon (Si) 1% max

17-4 Stainless Steel
Also known as a PH, or precipitation-hardening, grade of stainless, this alloy is used a great deal in the aircraft industry in part due to its strength, and also because there are a wide range of heat treatments to choose from to reach a specified hardness or other properties. This alloy is very similar to 15-5 except that 17-4 tends to have more ferrite, and is slightly more magnetic.

17-4 PH Stainless Steel Condition A (annealed)
Minimum Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 160,000
Yield Strength, psi 145,000
Elongation 5%
Rockwell Hardness C35
Chemistry Iron (Fe) 69.91 - 78.85%
Carbon (C) 0.07% max
Chrome (Cr) 15 - 17.5%
Manganese (Mn) 1% max
Niobium (Nb) + Tantalum (Ta) 0.15 - 0.45% max
Nickel (Ni) 3 - 5%
Phosphorus (P) 0.04% max
Sulphur (S) 0.03% min
Silicon (Si) 1% max

17-7 Stainless Steel
Also known as a PH, or precipitation-hardening, grade of stainless, this alloy is used a great deal in the aircraft industry in part due to its strength, and also because there are a wide range of heat treatments to choose from to reach a specified hardness or other properties. 17-7 has exceptionally high strength and hardness, as well as the corrosion resistance normally associated with stainless. It is one of the more formable of the PH grades.

17-7 PH Stainless Steel Condition A (annealed)
Minimum Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 130,000
Yield Strength, psi 40,000
Elongation 35%
Rockwell Hardness B85
Chemistry Iron (Fe) 70.59 - 76.75%
Carbon (C) 0.09% max
Chrome (Cr) 16 - 18%
Aluminum (Al) 0.75 - 1.5% max
Manganese (Mn) 1% max
Nickel (Ni) 6.5 - 7.75%
Phosphorus (P) 0.04% max
Sulphur (S) 0.03% min
Silicon (Si) 1% max

Nitronic 50 Stainless
This specialized alloy has better corrosion resistance than alloy 316, but twice the strength of that alloy. It can be hardened by cold working, but unlike most 300 series alloys, it does not become magnetic when cold-worked.

Nitronic 50 Stainless Steel (annealed condition)
Minimum Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 116,000
Yield Strength, psi 57,000
Elongation 47%
Rockwell Hardness B91
Chemistry Iron (Fe) 58%
Chrome (Cr) 22%
Manganese (Mn) 5%
Molybdenum (Mo) 2.25%
Nitrogen (N) 0.3%
Nickel (Ni) 12.5%
Silicon (Si) 1% max

Nitronic 60 Stainless
There are a lot of stainless steel alloys. We're still trying to think of something interesting to write about this one. Nitronic 60 has a corrosion resistance somewhere between T-304 and T-316, but with roughly twice the strength of those materials.

Nitronic 60 Stainless Steel (annealed condition)
Minimum Properties Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 103,000
Yield Strength, psi 60,000
Elongation 64%
Rockwell Hardness B95
Chemistry Iron (Fe) 62%
Chrome (Cr) 17%
Manganese (Mn) 8%
Nitrogen (N) 0.14%
Nickel (Ni) 8.5%
Silicon (Si) 4% max

At OnlineMetals, we all failed shop class. Multiple times. As a matter of fact, our employment applications specifically ask to see people's grades for their high school shop classes. If they're too high, they go into the rejected pile. We're also not engineers, and cannot make any specific recommendations about the suitability of a given alloy, temper, or shape for your project or application.

All technical data is for comparison purposes only and is NOT FOR DESIGN. It has been compiled from sources we believe to be accurate but cannot guarantee. This ends the part of the website that our pointy-headed lawyers made us put in.


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